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This example could be trivially extended to include other message metadata; using an AEAD like GCM means that this metadata doesn’t need to be encrypted. However, we’ll prefer to encrypt as much as we can to limit the amount of information about messages to an eavesdropper.

As another example, btc a PoX chain can recover from long-lived network partitions or even systemic block loss — the longest fork will become the canonical fork, and lost blocks will be "forked around" to produce a new canonical chain from the transactions that were orphaned. The choice to implement Nakamoto consensus in Stacks was made to grant the chain a high degree of resiliency in the face of unfavorable network conditions. In fact, thanks to Nakamoto consensus, the Stacks chain has already automatically recovered by forking around bug-induced network partitions and block loss early in its operation. For example, a PoX chain can recover from a safety failure (a 51% attack) as long as the malicious miners do not outspend the honest miners in perpetuity. If Stacks were a PoS chain, it would have crashed instead due to a quorum failure.

imageTo see one of its most famous ambassador using alt-right language should be a wake up call to fans,’ Saadia continued. Maybe he can’t stand that the limelights are now trained on a new, diverse crew?’ said Saadia." "‘It seems that Shatner has not so much misunderstood the source material than turned away from it,’ Manu Saadia, author of Trekonomics: The Economics of Star Trek. ‘It is ruinous for the 50-year-old franchise, especially so close to the launch of its first new show in more than a decade. ‘Star Trek is the lone TV show that has carried the torch of equality, progress, and utopia in popular culture. Shatner is known to be prickly and jealous of his status in Star Trek.

Specific to Stacks, if Bitcoin miner monopolization happens with less than 100% participation from Bitcoin miners, then STX holders have the power to vote for a network upgrade which would kill the current Stacks chain at a predetermined block height, and replace it with a backwards-incompatible version that could penalize miner monopolization (for example, by requiring STX miners to instead burn a minimum amount of BTC as a function of the last Bitcoin block’s total transaction fees). the de facto means of STX production would become spending electricity instead of BTC). External miner monopolization occurs when Bitcoin miners become Stacks miners, and proceed to censor competing block-commit transactions in a bid to win the STX tokens. If fully realized, this degraded form of mining is equivalent to merge mining with 100% miner participation (something that no merge-mined chain has ever achieved to date). It still wouldn’t degrade into PoS, since new Bitcoin miners could continue to join the Bitcoin network, spend electricity, and proceed to mine both BTC and STX (i.e. Because the option exists to vote to upgrade the chain to use new mining rules, and because the act of monopolization is the act of destroying Bitcoin’s reputation as censor-resistant money, it is expected that the act of maintaining this degraded form of mining would be detrimental to the profits of Bitcoin miners.

r : relative memory cost parameter (controls the blocksize in the underlying hash). N : the number of iterations. p : relative CPU cost parameter. The original presentation recommends a value of 1. The original presentation recommends a value of 8. In the original presentation[Perc09b] for the algorithm, 16384 (2 14 ) is recommended for interactive logins and 1048576 (2 20 ) for file encryption. In this book, we use 2 20 as a default for securing cryptographic secrets; a one-time initial cost to derive the key is acceptable for the applicatons we’ll use it for.

First, no matter how much BTC a reorging miner can commit, the act of executing a reorg is going to be time-consuming . PoX offers two additional, unique security properties on top of PoW. Unless the attacker can attack the Bitcoin chain itself by quickly producing a better Bitcoin fork, a reorging miner must sustain the attack for at least N + 1 Bitcoin blocks. This gives honest miners and users ample time to notice and react to the reorg attempt.

Today, millions of students across thousands of campuses are using Piazza for their classes. It warms me to think I started something that is impacting the way students learn and the way instructors teach.

To mine a block, a Stacks miner submits block-commit transaction on the Bitcoin chain, and out of all competing block-commits within a Bitcoin block, one of them will be chosen via a cryptographic sortition process. The winning miner earns the right to have their block accepted into the chainstate of other honest nodes, on the fork of their choice. Since mining is a single-leader process, BNB there is no quorum required to produce a block.

The crypto/ecdsa keys are used here instead of the ones defined in the crypto/elliptic package due to the support for serialising ECDSA keys in the crypto/x509 package (i.e. using the MarshalPKIXPublicKey and btc ParsePKIXPublicKey functions).image

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